Eiffel Tower: Great symbol of the steel structure industry

Gustave Eiffel’s real name is Gustave Bomickhausen. He is a world-renowned engineer for steel structures, especially large bridges.

Construction workers at the foundations of the Eiffel Tower.

On May 1, 1886, the French Minister of Industry and Trade opened a contest to design a 300m high tower, with a square base with a side of 125m. The tower will be erected on the Champ de Mars square in Paris to symbolize the international exhibition of economic, scientific and technical achievements worldwide in 1889, on the 100th anniversary of the 1789 French bourgeois Revolution. Seizing the opportunity, Gustave Eiffel designed and submitted the contest.

Gustave Eiffel’s tower project approved.

Engineers and workers erect parts of the Eiffel Tower.

After the tower was approved for construction, the famous French artists sent an open letter to Alphand, Director General of International Exhibition 1889. The letter was published in Le Temps on February 14, 1887 with the words indignation was as follows: “In the name of French Art and History at stake, we object to building in the heart of our capital a bizarre and useless Eiffel Tower …”
The open letter protested further: “Imagine a dizzying tower that dominates Paris like a giant black factory chimney, its barbaric form crushes Notre Dame Cathedral, the Louvre. , triumphal arch … All of our memorials are humiliated, all our structures are reduced, they will disappear in a dreadful dream … “

To complete the Eiffel Tower, France used 18,038 pieces of wrought iron and 2.5 million studs.

January 1887, the tower was started construction. Design file includes 5,300 drawings detailing 18,038 different metal rods, assembled on the tower with 7 million studs.

With only handcraft and 250 workers in two years, the tallest tower in the world has completed no fatal accidents.

On 15/04/1889 the construction of the tower was completed, 22 days before the opening of the international exhibition. The total budget is lower than expected, costing only 7,779,401 quan and 31 cents.
The international exhibition opened on May 7, 1889. In the first 6 months, 1,968,287 people visited the tower.

The Eiffel Tower nearly completed construction in December 1888.

At first the artists were opposed to the construction of the tower, but when the exhibition was completed and opened, the public rejoiced to welcome the tower and the image of the Eiffel Tower appeared again on the painters’ paintings, in sentences. Poetry of the poet and in the songwriter’s songs. In response to the poet Coppée who called the Eiffel Tower “a ridiculous pillar”, the poet Raoul Bonnery wrote:

“… A column? I accept this word but bold pride pole, it knows how to hold its head high talking about progress to heaven “

“A pillar that at night shines sparks on a vast city, and flatters the national flag of France by day …” The Le Franc Journal wrote in May 1889.

Eiffel Tower Completed and opened to welcome visitors in 1889

As usual, after the exhibition, the construction works for service were demolished. The removal of the Eiffel Tower after the exhibition has been discussed a lot because it was out of use. But destroying it is too wasteful because it is made of steel structure, people think how to use it. First of all, put a cannon on the tower to fire the working hours and the range.

After World War II, the City of Paris opened an American aircraft exhibition that participated in the great war at the foot of the tower. Let the people of Paris see the US air force with their own eyes.

Today’s Eiffel Tower

Today, the Eiffel Tower is the pride of France and Paris. Visitors to Paris no one does not visit the tower. Elevator with two-storey cabin takes visitors to the first floor, there is a dining restaurant, a meeting room, a cinema room.

Up to now, the Eiffel Tower has become a symbolic work of France. This tourist destination brings a huge source of foreign currency to help the French economy develop rapidly.

The elevator continues onto the second floor, where there are high-end restaurants, photo shops, soft drinks and souvenir shops. Transfer to another lift to go smoothly to the 3rd floor at a height of 276m. Here we enter a large octagonal room with windows overlooking all sides. Looking to the East – South, we can see on the window the words: This place is 9.215km from Hanoi.

The shape of the tower is the shape of the bending force diagram (moment diagram) when subjected to the horizontal wind force. Thus, the graceful curve of the tower is intended to accommodate the building’s bearing capacity. That beauty comes from the function of steel structures.

Over the past 100 years of existence, the Eiffel Tower still stands tall arrogantly in the ancient and magnificent sky of Paris. The Eiffel Tower is still writing its historical story.

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